Financial Definitions; F thru K

The ever increasing number of investment products and financial sets in the marketplace today can be confusing. We have put together this glossary of financial definitions designed to help you understand some of the more shared investment and financial terms you may encounter. Your financial advisor can explain these terms more completely and discuss with you those which are applicable to your situation.

confront Value – The value of a bond that appears on the confront of the bond, unless the value is otherwise stated by the issuing company. confront value is ordinarily the amount the issuing company promises to pay at maturity. confront value is not an indication of market value. Sometimes referred to as par value.

Financial Futures – Futures contracts based on financial instruments such as U.S. Treasury bonds, CDs and other interest-sensitive issues, currencies and stock market indicators.

Fiscal Year – A corporations accounting year. Due to the character of their particular business, some companies do not use the calendar year for their bookkeeping. A typical example is the department store that finds December 31 too early a date to close its books after the Christmas rush. For that reason many stores wind up their accounting year January 31. Their fiscal year, consequently, runs from February 1 of one year by January 31 of the next. The fiscal year of other companies may run from July 1 by the following June 30. Most companies, though, function on a calendar year basis.

Fixed Charges – A companys fixed expenses, such as bond interest, which it has agreed to pay whether or not earned, and which are deducted from income before earnings on equity capital are computed.

Flat Income Bond – This term method that the price at which a bond is traded includes consideration for all unpaid accruals of interest. Bonds that are in default of interest or principal are traded flat. Income bonds that pay interest only to the extent earned are usually traded flat. All other bonds are usually dealt in and interest, which method that the buyer pays to the seller the market price plus interest accrued since the last payment date.

Floor – The huge trading area – about the size of a football field – where stocks, bonds and options are bought and sold on the New York Stock Exchange.

Floor Broker – A member of the Stock Exchange who executes orders on the floor of the Exchange to buy or sell any listed securities.

Formula Investing – An investment technique. One formula calls for the shifting of funds from shared shares to preferred shares or bonds as a chosen market indicator rises above a certain predetermined point – and the return of funds to shared proportion investments as the market average declines.

Free and Open Market – A market in which supply and need are freely expressed in terms of price. Contrasts with a controlled market in which supply, need and price may all be regulated.

basic Research – examination of industries and companies based on such factors as sales, assets, earnings, products or sets, markets and management. As applied to the economy, basic research includes consideration of gross national product, interest rates, unemployment, inventories, savings, etc.

Funded Debt – Usually interest-bearing bonds or debentures of a company. Could include long-term bank loans. Does not include short-term loans, preferred or shared stock.

Futures – Exchange traded contracts specifying a future date of delivery or receipt of a certain amount of a specific tangible or intangible product. The commodities traded in futures markets include stock index futures, agricultural products like wheat, soybeans and pork bellies; metals; and financial instruments. Futures are used by business as a hedge against unfavorable price changes, and by speculators who hope to profit from such changes.

General Mortgage Bond – A bond that is secured by a blanket mortgage on the companys character but may be outranked by one or more other mortgages.

Gilt-Edged – High-grade bond issued by a company that has demonstrated its ability to earn a comfortable profit over a period of years and pay its bondholders their interest without interruption.

Give-Up – A term with many different meanings. For one, a member of the Exchange on the floor may act for a second member by executing an order for him or her with a third member. The first member tells the third member that he or she is acting on behalf of the second member and gives up the second members name instead of his or her own.

Gold Fix – The setting of the price of gold by dealers (especially in a twice daily London meeting at the central bank); the fix is the basic worldwide price for setting prices of gold bullion and gold-related contracts and products.

Good Delivery – Certain basic qualifications must be met before a security sold on the Exchange may be delivered. The security must be in proper form to comply with the contract of sale and to move title to the purchaser.

Good Til Canceled (GTC) or Open Order – An order to buy or sell that remains in effect until it is either executed or canceled.

Government Bonds – Obligations of the U.S. Government, regarded as the highest-grade securities issues.

Growth Stock – Stock of a company with a record of growth in earnings at a comparatively rapid rate.

Hedging – The buy or sale of a derivative security (such as options or futures) in order to reduce or neutralize all or some portion of the risk of holding another security.

Holding Company – A Corporation that owns the securities of another, in most situations with voting control.

Hypothecation – The pledging of securities as collateral – for example, to obtain the debit balance in a margin account.

Income Bond – Generally income bonds potential to repay principal but to pay interest only when earned. In some situations unpaid interest on an income bond may build up as a claim against the corporation when the bond becomes due. An income bond may also be issued in lieu of preferred stock.

Indenture – A written agreement under which bonds and debentures are issued, setting forth maturity date, interest rate, and other terms.

Index – A statistical yardstick expressed in terms of percentages of a base year or years. for example, the NYSE Composite Index of all NYSE shared stocks is based on 1965 as 50. An index is not an average.

Institutional Investor – An organization whose dominant purpose is to invest its own assets or those held in trust by it for others. Includes pension funds, investment companies, insurance companies, universities and edges.

Interest – Payments borrowers pay lenders for the use of their money. A Corporation pays interest on its bonds to its bondholders.

Interrogation Device – A computer terminal that provides market information – last sale price, quotes, quantity, etc. – on a screen or paper tape.

inherent Value – The dollar amount of the difference between the exercise price of an option and the current cash value of the inner security. inherent value and time value are the two elements of an option premium, or price.

Investment – The use of money for the purpose of making more money, to gain income or increase capital, or both.

Investment Banker – Also known as an underwriter. The middleman between the corporation issuing new securities and the public. The usual practice is for one or more investment bankers to buy outright from a corporation a new issue of stocks or bonds. The group forms a syndicate to sell the securities to individuals and institutions. Investment bankers also spread very large blocks of stocks or bonds – perhaps held by an estate.

Investment Company – A Company or trust that uses its capital to invest in other companies. There are two principal types: the closed-end and the open-end or mutual fund. Shares in closed-end investment companies, some of which are listed on the New York Stock Exchange, are freely transferable in the open market and are bought and sold like other shares. Capitalization of these companies remains the same unless action is taken to change, which is seldom. Open-end funds sell their own shares to investors, stand ready to buy back their old shares, and are not listed. Open-end funds are so called because their capitalization is not fixed; they issue more shares as people want them.

Investment Counsel – One whose principal business consists of acting as investment adviser and rendering investment supervisory sets.

IRA – Individual Retirement Account. A pension plan with tax advantages. IRA permits investment by intermediaries like mutual funds, insurance companies and edges or directly in stocks and bonds by stockbrokers.

Issue – Any of a companys securities, or the act of distributing such securities.

Keogh Plan – Tax advantaged personal retirement program that can be established by a self-employed individual.

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